Saturday, March 28, 2020
Mood disorders are characterized by disturbances in a person?s mood or their prolonged emotional state. Most people have a wide emotional range, they are capable of being happy or sad, animated or quiet, cheerful or discouraged, overjoyed or miserable, and it just depends on the circumstances. People with mood disorders, their range are greatly restricted. They will seem stuck at one or the other end of the emotional spectrum, either constantly happy and excited or constantly sad no matter what the circumstances. Depression is a well known mood disorder and very common. A person who is depressed will experience a state in which they feel overwhelmed with sadness, they lose interest in activities, and they will display other symptoms such as excessive guilt or feelings of worthlessness. How does one know when feelings of sadness and hopelessness are just normal feelings and reactions to a person?s circumstances or are they experiencing a form of depression.Clinicians look for some significant impairment of distress in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. Doctors also look for other explanations of the symptoms; could they be due to substance abuse or the side effects of medication that the person may be taking. Could it be a result of a medical condition, such as hypothyroidism which is the inability of the thyroid gland to produce an adequate amount of its hormones? Could the hormones be due to an intense grief reaction? If the symptoms cannot be explained by any of the above causes then the clinician uses a test called the DSM-IV-RT to help make a diagnosis of depression. DSM-IV-RT notes at least five of the fallowing symptoms and at least one of the first two must be present within the patient: 1.Depressed Mood- Feel sad or empty for most of the day, almost every day, or have others observed these symptoms? 2.Loss of interest in pleasure- lost interest in performing normal activities, such as working or going to social events? Does the person seem to just be going through the motions of everyday life and not receiving any pleasure from it? 3.Significant weight loss or gain- Has the person gained or lost more than five percent of body weight in a month? Has the person lost interest in eating or is complaining that food has lost its taste? 4.Sleep disturbance- Is the person having trouble sleeping? Or is the person sleeping too much? 5.Disturbance in motor activities- Is there a change in activity level? Does the person just sit around? Or does the behavior reflect agitation or unusual restlessness? 6.Fatigue- Does the person complain about constantly being tired and having no energy? 7.Feeling worthlessness or excessive guilt- Does the person express feeling like; ?You are better off without me? or ?I ruin everything for everyone I love.? 8.Unable to concentrate- Complain of memory problems or they are unable to focus their attention on simple tasks. 9.Thoughts of death- Does the person talk about committing suicide or wish that they were dead. Appropriate diagnosis is the first step in effective treatment. Second step is therapeutic help for the individual. Behavioral therapies would be most effective since its therapeutic approaches that are based on the belief that all behavior, normal and abnormal, is learned, and that the objective of therapy is to teach people new, more satisfying ways of behaving. Insight therapy would be affective also. Insight therapy is to give people a better awareness and understanding of their feelings, motivations, and actions in hope that this will lead to better adjustment. Family therapy would also be necessary for those who are experiencing depression who have a family. Family therapists believe that it is a mistake to treat a client in a vacuum, making no attempt to meet the person?s parents, spouse, and children, for if one person in the family is having problems, it is often a signal that the entire family needs assistance. I would also recommend couples therapy for those who are in a relationship. Couples therapy is designed to assist partners who are having difficulties within their relationship. While a person who is diagnosed with depression may not directly be aware that their depression is affecting their loved ones, therapy is necessary so that they are aware of how their behavior
Saturday, March 7, 2020
Major General George Meade in the Civil War Born at Cdiz, Spain on December 31, 1815, George Gordon Meade was the eighth of eleven children born to Richard Worsam Meade and Margaret Coats Butler. A Philadelphia merchant living in Spain, Meade had been crippled financially during the Napoleonic Wars and was serving a naval agent for the US government in Cdiz. Shortly after his death in 1928, the family returned to the United States and young George was sent to school at Mount Hope College in Baltimore, MD. West Point Meades time at Mount Hope proved brief due to his familys increasingly difficult financial situation. Wishing to continue his education and aid his family, Meade sought an appointment to the United States Military Academy. Securing admission, he entered West Point in 1831. While there his classmates included George W. Morell, Marsena Patrick, Herman Haupt, and future US Postmaster General Montgomery Blair. Graduating 19th in a class of 56, Meade was commissioned as a second lieutenant in 1835 and assigned to the 3rd US Artillery. Early Career Dispatched to Florida to fight the Seminoles, Meade soon fell ill with fever and was transferred to the Watertown Arsenal in Massachusetts. Having never intended to make the army his career, he resigned in late 1836 after recovering from his sickness. Entering civilian life, Meade sought work as an engineer and had some success surveying new lines for railroad companies as well as working for the War Department. In 1840, Meade married Margaretta Sergeant, the daughter of prominent Pennsylvanian politician John Sergeant. The couple would ultimately have seven children. After his marriage, Meade found steady work increasingly difficult to obtain. In 1842, he elected to re-enter the US Army and was made a lieutenant of topographical engineers. Mexican-American War Assigned to Texas in 1845, Meade served as a staff officer in Major General Zachary Taylors army after the outbreak of the Mexican-American War the following year. Present at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, he was brevetted to first lieutenant for gallantry at the Battle of Monterrey. Meade also served on the staffs of Brigadier General William J. Worth and Major General Robert Patterson. 1850s Returning to Philadelphia after the conflict, Meade spent the bulk of the next decade designing lighthouses and conducting coastal surveys on the East Coast. Among those lighthouses he designed were those at Cape May (NJ), Absecon (NJ), Long Beach Island (NJ), Barnegat (NJ) and Jupiter Inlet (FL). During this time, Meade also devised a hydraulic lamp that was accepted for use by the Lighthouse Board. Promoted to captain in 1856, he was ordered west the following year to oversee a survey of the Great Lakes. Publishing his report in 1860, he remained on the Great Lakes until the outbreak of the Civil War in April 1861. The Civil War Begins Returning east, Meade was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers on August 31 at the recommendation of Pennsylvania Governor Andrew Curtin and given command of the 2nd Brigade, Pennsylvania Reserves. Initially assigned to Washington, DC, his men built fortifications around the city until being assigned to Major General George McClellans newly formed Army of the Potomac. Moving south in the spring of 1862, Meade took part in McClellans Peninsula Campaign until being wounded three times at the Battle of Glendale on June 30. Quickly recovering, he rejoined his men in time for the Second Battle of Manassas in late August. Rising through the Army In the course of the fighting, Meades brigade took part in the vital defense of Henry House Hill which allowed the remainder of the army to escape after the defeat. Shortly after the battle he was given command of the 3rd Division, I Corps. Moving north at the beginning of the Maryland Campaign, he earned praise for his efforts at the Battle of South Mountain and again three days later at Antietam. When his corps commander, Major General Joseph Hooker, was wounded, Meade was selected by McClellan to take over. Leading I Corps for the remainder of the battle, he was wounded in the thigh. Returning to his division, Meade achieved the only Union success during the Battle of Fredericksburg that December when his men drove back the troops of Lieutenant General Thomas Stonewall Jackson. His success was not exploited and his division was forced to fall back. In recognition for his actions, he was promoted to major general. Given command of V Corps on December 25, he commanded it at the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863. During the course of the battle, he implored Hooker, now the army commander, to be more aggressive but to no avail. Taking Command Following his victory at Chancellorsville, General Robert E. Lee began moving north to invade Pennsylvania with Hooker in pursuit. Arguing with his superiors in Washington, Hooker was relieved on June 28 and command was offered to Major General John Reynolds. When Reynolds declined, it was offered to Meade who accepted. Assuming command of the Army of the Potomac at Prospect Hall near Frederick, MD, Meade continued to move after Lee. Known to his men as The Old Snapping Turtle, Meade had reputation for a short temper and possessed little patience for the press or civilians. Gettysburg Three days after taking command, two of Meades corps, Reynolds I and Major General Oliver O. Howards XI, encountered the Confederates at Gettysburg. Opening the Battle of Gettysburg, they were mauled but succeeded in holding favorable ground for the army. Rushing his men to the town, Meade won a decisive victory over the next two days and effectively turned the tide of the war in the East. Though triumphant, he was soon criticized for failing to aggressively pursue Lees battered army and deliver a war-ending blow. Following the enemy back to Virginia, Meade conducted ineffective campaigns at Bristoe and Mine Run that fall. Under Grant In March 1864, Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant was appointed lead all Union armies. Understanding that Grant would come east and citing the importance of winning the war, Meade offered to resign from his army command if the new commander preferred to appoint someone different. Impressed by Meades gesture, Grant refused the offer. Though Meade retained command of the Army of the Potomac, Grant made his headquarters with the army for the remainder of the war. This proximity led to a somewhat awkward relationship and command structure. Overland Campaign That May, the Army of the Potomac embarked on the Overland Campaign with Grant issuing orders to Meade who in turn issued them to the army. Meade largely performed well as the fighting progressed through the Wilderness and Spotsylvania Court House, but chaffed at Grants interference in the armys matters. He also took issue with Grants perceived preference for officers who had served with him in the west as well as his willingness to absorb heavy casualties. Conversely, some within Grants camp felt that Meade was too slow and cautious. As the fighting reached Cold Harbor and Petersburg, Meades performance began to slip as he did not direct his men to scout properly prior to the former battle and failed to coordinate his corps properly in the opening stages of the latter. During the siege of Petersburg, Meade again erred altering the attack plan for the Battle of the Crater for political reasons. Remaining in command throughout the siege, he fell ill on the eve of the final breakthrough in April 1865. Unwilling to miss the armys final battles, he led the Army of the Potomac from an army ambulance during the Appomattox Campaign. Though he made his headquarters near Grants, he did not accompany him to the surrender talks on April 9. Later Life With the end of the war, Meade remained in the service and moved through various department commands on the East Coast. In 1868, he took over the Third Military District in Atlanta and oversaw Reconstruction efforts in Georgia, Florida, and Alabama. Four years later, he was struck by a sharp pain in his side while in Philadelphia. An aggravation of the wound sustained at Glendale, he declined rapidly and contracted pneumonia. After a brief fight, he succumbed on November 7, 1872, and was buried at Laurel Hill Cemetery in Philadelphia.
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
Ethical Performance Appraisal Issues - Research Paper Example The compensation plan also cut down on the amount of money that was given to doctors who had tenure. This is because the amount of money they were getting was more that they were bringing in and or that reason, in order to benefit from the finances they had to work more to gain more. Various strengths have been associated with the pay for performance plan. They include positive performance because the surgeons pay correlate directly with the number of patients or surgeries they perform in a given quarter. Secondly, the compensation plan provides equality on the surgeons in the sense that regardless of the tenure on has served they all have to get paid according to their performance; hence, reducing the protection given to low performers in the organization (Beaulieu & Zimmerman, 2005a). Thirdly, there is employee motivation because the surgeons will not be relying on the base pay that they have been accustomed to in that, knowing that they will get more when they work makes it increase their motivation and productivity for the organization. Even though the compensation plan has various strengths, it has shown some weaknesses. They include lack of backing from surgeons who have had tenure of service. Because they are accustomed to a little work, yet more pay and for that reason, adjusting would be AA problem. Secondly, the surgeons working on the research will abandon their work because the money meaning that they might lose grants from National Institute of Health motivates them. To deal with these challenges, it is important to come up with a plan that will ensure that the employees with tenure do not feel left out. Additionally, they should be provided with a work plan that allows them to bring the hospital money to stop in order to ensure that even though they are taking money from the hospital at least they are bringing some back. In relation to
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Mental Process - Research Paper Example It is an operation, which has an effect on the mental contents of an individual. It can also be seen as the thinking process or the cognitive remembrance operation. Overall, it is all the different things that an individual can do with his or her mind including emotion, volition, reasoning, belief, conception, imagination, creativity, memory, introspection, and perception. 1. Compare and Contrast the Four Styles of Creative Intelligence and their Influence on Organizational Decision Making. Intuition is focused on the production of results and is reliant on experiences in the guidance of decisions (Bara, 2010). Most people consider the implications of comprehending the past as most believe that a majority of mistakes can be escaped if one understands its historical significance. Every organization, from a perspective of business, needs to consider patterns and exhibit caution at every turn. Strategic planning lets organizations prepare for possible scenarios via the forecasting of al l outcomes that are possible (Bara, 2010). Some of the biggest successes, as well as failures, can be traced back to reliance on results that are past. Businesses will consider several factors, for example, the marketÃ¢â¬â¢s current conditions, segmentation, objectives, and experiences that it relates to in the past. The mindset of inspiration is focused on the change in society and the presentation of dedication aimed at changing results (Bara, 2010). People whose working is grounded in this mindset are imbued with positive energy and are able to remain focused, motivated, and logical. Organizations that possess this type of individual are enabled in their ability to visualize situations currently and use that as inspiration to create a positive future outcome. These individuals have the ability to promote change, which could limit the organization in a number of ways (Bara, 2010). They have a tendency to lose focus on everyday functions, as they are highly adept at assessment of the bigger picture. The style of imagination targets artistic individuals, who enjoy writing, and show qualities of strong leadership (Brown, 2006). Individuals with this mindset show the ability to visualize various scenarios. They possess a huge impact in the process of decision making especially in organizations where there are chaotic times since they are able to visualize beyond the current situation, which gives them excellent coping skills for solution for problems. They have an ability that is unique in their ability to remain confident and poised which rubs of on the rest of the organization. They also inspire others allowing them plan for and envision the future. One limitation is that these people are not totally focused on the immediate future, which could be problematic since all aspects should be placed in perspective (Brown, 2006). Individuals using the innovative style tend to stick to the issues before them and on evidence (Brown, 2006). It is the most logical of t he styles since it is clearly focused on evidence that is visible like data. However, this makes it impossible to see the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s apparent vision, which it is attempting to achieve. Successful organizations need a balance of different mindsets, which are found suited well to different roles. Precision is needed by all industries and organizations thus innovation is vital. This mindset comes
Monday, January 27, 2020
Sunday, January 19, 2020
The Matching Dell Business case by (Rivkin. J & Porter, M) defines the personal computer industry and outlines its history and development, with focus on Dell Computers. This paper will analyze the case study by means of the Strategic Situation Analysis and Planning Method (SSAP), by portraying and comparing Dell with its main competitors, namely: IBM, Compaq, Hewllet-Packard and Gateway. Approaching the strategic situation from SSAP methodÃ¢â¬â¢s step number one, Financial Analysis, step number two, External Business Environment Analysis and step number three, Business and Corporate Strategy Analysis, an external analyst perspective will be drawn based on past , present and future trends that will be used to give recommendations of investments to potential investors. The Personal Computer Industry From its inception the computer industry was mainly composed of large corporations such as IBM and DEC and unaffordable, heavy hardware such as mainframe computers. Having a personal computer at home was a mere aspiration those days. Between 1975 and 1981 many discoveries occurred that gained popularity with electronic hobbyists, when pre-assembled personal computers entered the market. These computers were pioneered by firms such as Apple Computers, MITS and smaller ones such as Tandy/RadioShack and Commodore. Almost immediately, other major electronic firms entered the market of personal computers. These companies focused their business on other electronic industries before this. The pioneer of the first personal computer was IBM in 1981 and its success translated to a market share of 42% of the market two years later. Although, IBM produced most of the components for its mainframes computers, for PCs it purchased from others the required parts and then assembled the machines. The operating software for IBMÃ¢â¬â¢s first PC was custom-made by Microsoft, which was then just a start-up software firm. The microprocessor for the operating system (OS) was designed by Intel, another corporation that benefited from the partnership with IBM. MicrosoftÃ¢â¬â¢s first operating system to IBM is the backbone structure for all the current versions of operating systems (OS) implemented by Microsoft. A proprietary system developed by Apple, held 20% of the market by 1983. In 1982, another firm named Compaq entered the market with a low-priced portable clone and had $100 million in revenues during its first year, which turned out to be the fastest growing company in American history. By 1984, Dell Computer Corporation entered the market and transformed the way PCs were assembled and distributed. Historically, what has really revolutionized the PC industry was the establishment by IBM of an open architecture for their first PC, making its operating system and other proprietary information available to encourage software developers to write programs for the IBM PC and to motivate other firms to make compatible peripherals. Moreover, the unforeseen business strategy at IBM caused the company to become vulnerable to other market entrants and lost their sustainable competitive advantage, since many other IBM clones were manufactured. This cased the company to lose market share to competitors. Step One Ã¢â¬â Financial Analysis Financial Position Dell's financial history, like most company's, changes over different periods. These changes can be attributed to changes in the demand of the product, technological advancements, manufacturing costs, competition, and economic conditions. In 1999, the approximate cost of manufacturing a basic personal computer was between $800 and $900 (Kwak & Yoffie 1999). Dell sold computers directly, and through retail distributors. In 1994, Dell actually lost money on retail sales. When comparing Dell's direct sales to the retail channel it shows that there was a 5. % operating income through the direct sales, and a -3. 0% operating income in retail sales. Dell's market share increases from 1. 0 in 1990 to 13. 2 in 1998. Direct sales of Dell' personal computers through telephone, mail, and internet helped increase their market share. The total market size for the personal computer industry is $74. 6 million. Exhibit 4: Portion of Sales Through Each Channel by Region from the Matching Dell Case shows the highest channels in which personal computers are distributed in different geographic areas. In the Americas, the most popular channel is distributor/reseller which accounts for 41. 2% of sales, second is the direct channel which accounts for 29. 7% of sales, and third is the retail channel which accounts for 21. 7% of the sales. These three channels are the top channels world wide, and distributor/reseller is the channel with the highest percentage of sales across the board. Income Statements Dell and its competitors Compaq, Gateway, and HP all have had their revenues increase over the period between 1991 and 1998. The companies differ when the net income is compared from the same time period. In the Appendix, Table 4: Profit as a Percentage of Sales shows a comparison between 1991 and 1998. Profit as a percentage of sales is a note worthy calculation because it shows a ratio of profits to sales. If a company has high sales it does not necessarily mean that it will have high profits. In Table 4, you see that in 1998 Dell has the highest profit as a percentage of sales. Since Compaq has a negative net income in this year, its data is skewed. Dell percentage of sale has grown by 2. % in this seven year period. Using the calculation (This Year)/Base Year x 100 and data from 1991, to 1998 Dell sales increased 20. 5% and net income increased 28. 63%. This shows that profits increased more than sales in the same time period. This means that Dell became more efficient in production which yielded greater profits. Net income increasing more than sales shows Dell's efficiency in production and distribution. It cut costs of making and selling its computers to have a greater profit. In the appendix, Table 1 shows the year on year percent changes for Dell's sales. This table shows that Dell's sales continue to grow each year. Price Comparison Exhibit 9 in the Matching Dell Case shows Ratings of High-end Desktop PCs by Consumer Reports(1998). It is shown on the table that Dell's product sells for $2400, HP's product sells for $2200, Gateway's product sells for $2647, and Compaq's product sells for $2950. Data on the same table rates these computers on price, speed, quality, and other things customers value in computers with a scale of 1 being excellent and 5 being poor. When the customer ratings are averaged Gateway has a rating of 1. , Dell and HP have a rating of 2. 4, and Compaq has a rating of 2. 7. Dell is the lowest in price and second highest in rating. This shows that customers are satisfied with the dell computer, more so than some of the more expensive brands. Company Profitability Exhibit 11 from the case compares Major PC Manufactures and their financial data. Return on Equity(ROE) is calculated in this table and the major players can be compared. The ROE shows the profitability of a corporation because it shows how much profit is generated from the money the shareholders have invested. Dell has a ROE of 62. %, Gateway has a ROE of 25. 7%, HP has a ROE of 17. 4%, and Compaq has a ROE of -24. 2%. HP and Compaq have substantially more revenue than Dell. Compaq does not have a higher net income, but HP does. At first glance you would think that HP is a better company in regards to personal computers but when you look at the ROE you notice a difference. Out of all the major competitors in the personal computer industry Dell has the highest ROE. Therefore it is the most successful company in this market. It would be recommended that investors invest in Dell to achieve the most out of their investment. Revenues Dell's company became more successful when it withdrew from retail in 1994. It was losing money by distributing its computers in this channel and learned from its mistakes. In 1996 it started its website which provided another opportunity for customers to order from them directly. Exhibit 11 also shows that Dell keeps its cost structure lower than its competitors. When something is not benefiting the company, Dell does not wait, it acts on it and tries to continue to make Dell a successful corporation. Compaq has very, very high revenues but there are obviously major problems with the company. Its net income and ROE are negative numbers, which shows that the company is not profitable in 1998. Compaq only has 4. 4% of sales from direct sales, where Dell has 86. 6%. This is a major advantage to Dell because there is no middle man and Dell can obtain all profits. In ratings of PC Vendors by Corporate Managers with PC buying Responsibility (Exhibit 8), Dell Ranks high in user satisfaction, extremely high in raw technology, second highest in pricing, and moderately high in service and support. Compaq ranks high in pricing but low in user satisfaction, raw technology, and all customer relations. Having quality customer services gives Dell an advantage over Compaq. Financial Conclusion The financial performance of Dell, Compaq, HP, Gateway and other companies in the PC industry we see that high revenues do not always translate into a profitable company. Shareholders and investors are looking for high returns on the amount they invest in their respected companies. Dell is the most profitable company as of 1998 with the highest return on investment. The most valued aspect of Dell's company at this time is the use of the direct sales channel. Also, Dell sells its computers at a cheaper price than its competitors but still ranks high in customer satisfaction surveys. Dell can offer a lower price by keeping its manufacturing and selling costs down. This way it can still make a profit and keep and attract customers. Dell started out as a small operation in a college dorm room and it continues to grow significantly on a yearly basis. Step Two Ã¢â¬â External Business Environment Analysis The market for computer systems and services is subject to intense price competition. In addition to several large branded companies, there are other branded and generic competitors. Dell competes primarily based on its technology, direct customer relationships, value, performance, customer service, quality, and reliability. Its main competitors are Compaq, and Gateway, both business are 90% PC dependent. However, due to CompaqÃ¢â¬â¢s low financial performance, HP was DellÃ¢â¬â¢s primary competitor followed by Gateway in 1998. The main stakeholders group are: customers, competitors, suppliers, shareholders, employees and the government. In Table 6 in the Appendix theTarget [Customer-or-Client] Ã¢â¬â [Product-or-Service Connections] is shown. The PC competitive environment can be distinguished between its geographic and its customer categories. The geographic market for the PC industry is segmented by worldwide and U. S basis market share, while the customer category is segmented into: Large business, small & midsize business, home and small office, government and educational institutions. Based on the information from Exhibit 11 in the Matching Dell case, Compaq leads the U.Ã S and the worldwide market with 16. 4% and 16. 6% of PC shares respectively. Dell comes in second place with 10. 4% in the worldwide market share and 15. 1% in the U. S. PC market share. Gateway follows in behind both companies with a 4. 2% worldwide share and 8. 1% in the U. S. By comparing the major players we can see that Compaq is a leader in the market, however these market leadership if compared with the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financial information is not translated into profits, since it has a negative profit marking and a negative return on equity (ROE). ROE is one of the best measures of a corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s profitability, since it shows investors and stakeholders how much profit the company generates with the money shareholders have invested and for Compaq a negative ROE could be an indication that even if it has the greater market share amongst the PC industry there are problems with the bottom line net income and management issues. The customer group of Large Business is dominated by Dell Computers with 33. 6% market share followed by Compaq with 27. 5%. In the case of Small & Midsize business, Dell has a 37% against a 32. % market share held by Compaq. Moreover, in the Home & Small office PC sales customer category, Gateway has the leadership by large from its closest competitor HP with a 58. 2% share against a 33. 3% held by HP and Compaq comes next with a 28. 5% stake of the market. In addition, Gateway also has a leadership in the Education segment of the market, with a 8. 2% market share trailed by Compaq with 5. 3%. The government sectors is mostly equally divided amongst the PC industry competitors, with shares ranging from 5. 1% to 6. %, leveraging a very close competition. Growth rates and the percentage changes help to analyze and understand the companies being assessed. The overall performance of the PC industry has been assessed from 1989 to 1998 and the results are as follows: (Conclusions from Exhibit 2) DellÃ¢â¬â¢s growth rate on average was 50. 5% for the period 1989 to 1998, while Compaq grew an average of 17. 9%. If this percentage change had not being analyzed in depth, one could think that Gateway had a greater growth than Dell Computers; from its inception it had an 87. % growth rate. However, if the first two years of operation were removed from the calculations, we can see that the actual growth rate for GatewayÃ¢â¬â¢s would only be 19. 5%, which would place it behind Dell. Compaq had and average growth of 17. 9% in the same period. Five forces competitive analysis and industry value chain (Diagram 1). Dell manufactures most of the products it sells and has manufacturing locations worldwide to service its global customer base. Dell believes that its manufacturing processes and supply-chain management techniques provide it a distinct competitive advantage. Its build-to-order manufacturing process is designed to allow Dell to significantly reduce cost while simultaneously providing customers the ability to customize their product purchases. In addition, Dell purchases some of its products from third-party original equipment manufacturers and resells them under the Dell name. DellÃ¢â¬â¢s manufacturing process consists of assembly, software installation, functional testing, and quality control. Testing and quality control processes are also applied to components, parts, and subassemblies obtained from third-party suppliers. Quality control is maintained through the testing of components, subassemblies, and systems at various stages in the manufacturing process. Quality control also includes a burn-in period for completed units after assembly, on-going production reliability audits, failure tracking for early identification of production and component problems, and information from DellÃ¢â¬â¢s customers obtained through services and support programs.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
INFORMATION SYTEMS AND RECRUITMENT Among the many definitions of Human Resource Management (HRM), this paper will approach it from a sistemic perspective. That is to say, HRM comprises the whole range of activities from the need to fill a free post to the time when an employee leaves the firm. The first one is the recruitment process, which is divided into three stages: Application, selection and socialization. This paper will leave out the latter, focusing in the use of HRIS (Human Resources Information Systems) for the recruitment process until the final appointment decision.Specifically, the first decision to be made by the firm is whether the recruitment will be internal or external. Table 1 shows a comparative between the pros and cons of each type of recruitment. As it can be seen, the internal recruitment has, initially, more advantages than the external. This is why several academics (e. g. Deguy, 1989; Pena Baztan, 1990 and Diez de Castro et al. , 2002) recommend this option whenever it is feasible and suitable. Only in those cases that this is not valid or sufficient, the firm must resort to external recruitment. Nevertheless, it is necessary to keep in mind that this statement is to be taken cautiously.There is no perfect recruitment method; the choice will have to be made considering the particular circumstances of the firm and its objectives. European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS) 2006, July 6-7 2006, Costa Blanca, Alicante, Spain J. A. Fernandez-Sanchez et al. Use of HRIS in recruitment process. The Spanish case. 2 Internal recruitment External recruitment advantages disadvantages Advantages disadvantages Low cost Limited offer Higher number of candidates High cost Faster results Interest conflicts Slower Better knowledge of candidates Lack of authority due to excess of trustNo prior knowledge of candidates Shorter socialization period Lack of innovation and new ideas Encourage change and innovation Longer socializati on period Business culture is fortified Business culture may stagnate Encourage modifications in culture Likely cultural shock Increases motivation between employees Likely discontent among non-selected May de-motivate Increases the build up of knowledge Factor for attraction and upkeep of staff Table 1. Internal vs. external recruitment The optimal use of internal recruitment processes requires possessing an updated and accurate knowledge of the personnel of the firm (Leal Millan et al. 1999), for which a HRIS can be used. The simplest and cheapest of them all, most likely, is a human resource inventory (also known as Internal IS): a database or registrar in which the largest amount of information possible is kept. Basic data to be included in this database are the personal details, the recruitment dates, the positions held, promotions, and other observations regarding their performance and potential (Pena Baztan, 1990). Following this, it must be reminded that the internal recruit ment sources are to be employed wisely, because, on occasion, they may lead to deception instead of motivation.Likewise, in order to ensure that all internal and external (if any) applications are considered equally, the former should be complemented with the most complete information available (Besseyre des Horts, 1988). Considering this frame of work, this paper intends to test two main hypotheses on the topic of the use of these recruitment sources from an empirical point of view. On the one hand, regarding the relationship between HRIS and internal recruitment processes: Hypothesis 1: Ã¢â¬Å"The firms that deploy HRIS in their internal recruitment processes will perform better than those who do not do itÃ¢â¬ .On the other hand, following those authors that recommend internal over external recruitment decisions, the research inquires whether: Hypothesis 2: Ã¢â¬Å"The firms that prefer internal recruitment decisions over external recruitment will perform better than those who do not do itÃ¢â¬ . Nevertheless, the implications that the assertion or rejection of these statements will not be fully understood unless a descriptive analysis of the presence and usage of business HRIS is carried out. This will be done prior to the actual test of the hypotheses alleged above.European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS) 2006, July 6-7 2006, Costa Blanca, Alicante, Spain J. A. Fernandez-Sanchez et al. Use of HRIS in recruitment process. The Spanish case. 3 2 DATA ANALYSIS To study the two hypotheses, along with some descriptive data, a nation-wide empirical research was performed. It was founded on the results of a prior research limited to the province of Alicante (Spain), in which the questionnaire was tested and the model was validated. SCOPE Spain POPULATION 3000 Firms with more than 200 employees SAMPLE 334 valid answers (11,1%)STANDARD ERROR 5,2%1 Table 2. Technical data of the empirical research The T test, used to determine the infere nce of the observations, concluded that there were no significant differences between the group of firms that did answer and that who did not. Consequently, the data here shown can be considered as valid indicators of the behaviour of the Spanish firms with more than 200 employees. 2. 1 Use of HRIS in the firm: a descriptive analysis Before the two main hypotheses are tested, a complimentary analysis of the findings may lead to a better understanding of the implications of this research.This part of the study will deal with the descriptive analysis of the use of HRIS in the firm. The first dimension to be concerned about is the type of information system implemented by these firms (see Table 3). Traditional (manual) Files Computerised HRIS Management of C. V. online F % V% C% F % V% C% F % V% C% YES 259 77,5 77,5 77,5 165 49,4 49,7 49,7 207 62,0 62,3 62,3 NO 75 22,5 22,5 100,0 167 50,0 50,3 100,0 125 37,4 37,7 100,0 Total 334 100,0 100,0 332 99,4 100,0 332 99,4 100,0 F=Frequency %=P ercentage V%= Valid percentage C%= Cumulative percentage Table 3.Most common applications of HRIS A few facts stand out in table 3. For starters, over two thirds of the firms (77,5%) use manual HRIS, i. e. traditional files. This is likely due to their lower cost and easier handling. As for the most sophisticated systems, this is, the computerised HRIS, barely half of the firms employ them, although this has shown an increasing tendency when compared to the results of the previous experimental research (in early 2004, only a 38,6% of the firms gave an affirmative answer).The motivations underneath this evolution include the sheer necessity to adapt to the requirements of a more complex organization, the desire to imitate those successful firms that had implemented them, or the uprising of more knowledgeable managers in present time businesses, among others. Regarding the deployment of applications for managing C. V. s online (retrieving them and storing the information adequately), it seems easy and useful enough to be accepted by 62% of the organizations. Regarding the use of HRIS in the recruitment policy, table 4 shows that every stage may benefit from them.Even though, their degree of application is inversely related to the timing and the complexity of 1 This error has been calculated for N=3000, assuming p=q and a confidence interval of 95%. European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS) 2006, July 6-7 2006, Costa Blanca, Alicante, Spain J. A. Fernandez-Sanchez et al. Use of HRIS in recruitment process. The Spanish case. 4 the task. As it was observed before, more sophisticated HRIS (and, therefore, able to assist in more complex tasks such as decision making processes) are implemented by a smaller number of firms. Reception of pplications Data storage Data retrieval Decision making processes F % V% C% F % V% C% F % V% A% F % V% C% YES 294 88. 0 91. 0 91. 0 285 85. 3 88. 2 88. 2 216 64. 7 66. 9 66. 9 151 42. 2 46. 7 46. 7 NO 29 8. 7 9. 0 100 38 11. 4 11. 8 100 107 32. 0 33. 1 100 172 51. 5 53. 3 100 Total 323 96. 7 100 323 96. 7 100 323 96. 7 100 323 96. 7 100 F=Frequency %=Percentage V%= Valid percentage C%= Cumulative percentage Table 4. Use of HRIS in different recruitment stages In sum, table 5 shows that 36,5% of the firms do use some HRIS application for all four recruitmentrelated tasks, which indicate two conclusions: ) HRIS are not an exclusive tool, but they are seldom used in combination with other methods; and b) These applications are good enough as assistants and support devices, but they will never be able to substitute human criterion. Frequency Cumulative frequency % Valid % Cumulative % 0 14 14 4,2 4,2 4,2 1 28 42 8,4 8,4 12,6 2 80 122 24,0 24,0 36,5 3 90 212 26,9 26,9 63,5 4 122 334 36,5 36,5 100,0 Total* 334 100,0 100,0 *0= no HRIS; 1= HRIS for only one task; 2= HRIS for two tasks; and so on. Table 5. Number of tasks performed through HRISFinally, there was an interest in seeing whether seve ral structural characteristics of these firms were significantly related to the use of HRIS. It can be seen in table 6 that only two classifications are affected by the use of HRIS: parent firms over subsidiaries, and the larger firms. These results respond to the logic that both types of organizations require a more complex structure, which may influence in their decision of relying on HRIS for leaner and more efficient recruitment tasks. VARIABLES CHI-SQUARED DEGREES OF FREEDOM SIGN. Family Business 4,241 4 ,374Parent /subsidiary 19,832 6 ,003 Public/private 1,295 4 ,862 Industry 36,434 28 ,132 % Permanent staff 13,960 12 ,303 Number of employees 28,320 8 ,000 Table 6. Use of HRIS concerning other classification treats European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS) 2006, July 6-7 2006, Costa Blanca, Alicante, Spain J. A. Fernandez-Sanchez et al. Use of HRIS in recruitment process. The Spanish case. 5 2. 2 Hypothesis 1: The firms that deploy HRIS in their inte rnal recruitment processes will perform better than those who do not do itThe first hypothesis is tested with the aid of a new variable created for the purpose of measuring whether the firms use internal recruitment methods based on HRIS applications. A Chi-squared test, carried out on the actual results against the null hypothesis, assesses that the actual results are different enough to overcome a certain probability that they are due to sampling error with a statistical significance of 0,045, thus confirming the assertion of hypothesis 1.Hence, it is found that those firms that rely on internal recruitment processes based on HRIS applications have better outcomes in the performance of the appointed person than those who do not. Table 7 shows the observed frequencies and how this fact may affect the overall performance of the recruitment process. Regarding the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ impression on the effects of using HRIS to recruit good candidates, the majority of those that implement the m (89,3%) agree in considering this fact Ã¢â¬Å"quiteÃ¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"plentyÃ¢â¬ beneficial. It is outstanding as well the fact that only one of them has marked this item as Ã¢â¬Å"No beneficial at allÃ¢â¬ .Perceived outcomes recruitment/ selection No beneficial at all A little Quite Plenty Yes Internal recruitment and HRIS 1 (0. 3%) 31 (10. 3%) 209 (69. 4%) 60 (19. 9%) No 0 (0. 0%) 7 (21. 2%) 25 (75. 8%) 1 (3. 0%) Table 7. Concurrence of HRIS usage and internal recruitment. Effects on recruitment results. In addition, in order to find if the use of HRIS has a positive influence on the outcomes of the recruiting process, another Chi-squared test shows that a relationship is established between the independent variable (Use of HRIS) and the dependent one (Perceived outcomes of the process), with a 0,000 statistical significance.Therefore, it is statically confirmed that a greater application of HRIS contribute in a positive manner to the outcomes of the recruitment process, and , in consequence, to the overall performance of the firm. This evidence agrees, once more, with hypothesis 1. 2. 3 Hypothesis 2: The firms that prefer internal recruitment decisions over external recruitment will perform better than those who do not do itBefore carrying out this test, it seemed necessary to see whether firms prefer internal recruitment techniques over external ones. To do so, a frequency analysis was carried out, as illustrated in table 8. Frequency % Valid % Cumulative % Never 5 1,5 1,6 1,6 Very rarely 11 3,3 3,5 5,1 Rarely 19 5,7 6,1 11,2 Occasionally 62 18,6 19,8 31,0 Frequently 72 21,6 23,0 54,0 Very frequently 77 23,1 24,6 78,6 Always 67 20,1 21,4 100,0 Preference of internal recruitment over external recruitment Total 313 93,7 100,0 Table 8.Preference of internal recruitment over external recruitment The low values of the Ã¢â¬Å"very rarelyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"neverÃ¢â¬ categories, and the fact that 69% of the firms prefer internal over external recruitment o n a Ã¢â¬Å"frequentlyÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"alwaysÃ¢â¬ basis, demonstrate that it is internal European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS) 2006, July 6-7 2006, Costa Blanca, Alicante, Spain J. A. Fernandez-Sanchez et al. Use of HRIS in recruitment process. The Spanish case. 6 recruitment what organizations favour. The reasons under this tendency can be found in the advantages of internal recruitment methods, as seen in the literature review.As for the consequences of this choice, table 9 provides the results of the relationship between the use of internal recruitment by the firms and the perceived degree of satisfaction with the outcomes of such a decision. None Of little satisfaction Moderately satisfactory Satisfactory Very satisfactory Addition of the last two Seldom 0 (0. 0%) 0 (0. 0%) 3 (30. 0%) 6 (60. 0%) 1 (10. 0%) 7 (70. 0%) Occasionally 0 (0,0%) 0 (0,0%) 12 (15,0%) 58 (72,5%) 10 (12,5%) 68 (85,0%) Sometimes 1 (0,8%) 0 (0,0%) 11 (8,7%) 97 (76,4%) 18 (14 ,2%) 115 (90,6%) Often 0 (0,0%) 0 (0,0%) 5 (6,9%) 44 (61,1%) 23 (31,9%) 67 (93,0%) Use of nternal recruitment Always 0 (0,0%) 0 (0,0%) 1 (5,0%) 11 (55,0%) 8 (40,0%) 19 (95,0%) Table 9. Degree of satisfaction with the outcomes of the recruitment process This contingency table indicates that those firms that use primarily internal recruitment processes seem more satisfied with their decision. Moreover, another Chi-squared test carried on these two variables rejects the null hypothesis of independence with a statistical significance of 0,013.Therefore, hypothesis 2 is confirmed, as has been argued by the work of other authors (namely Pfeffer, 1994 and 1998; Huselid, 1995; Delaney and Huselid, 1996; Delery and Doty, 1996) who show a positive relationship between the internal recruitment strategy and the performance of the firm. 3 DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS The main conclusion of this paper is the realization that the use of business HRIS is in a developing and retrieval. In spite of thi s, it is recognized the positive influence that these systems have in the recruiting process, which make us think that HRIS will gain a place in many organizations in the short and medium term.Regarding the commonest applications of HRIS, our findings indicate that a fairly large percentage of firms rely on these systems for at least one the stages of the recruitment process. Nevertheless, the presence of these applications is scarcer for the most complex and delayed in time tasks, such as decision making processes, because they require, in return, more complex HRIS. This conclusion is therefore reinforced by the findings expressed above, since it is the developing stage of HRIS what leads to this decompensate situation. It was also observed that two groups of organizations lead the HRIS mplementation trend: the parent companies, with regard to their subsidiaries, and the largest firms in terms of number of employees. This seems a logical finding because their more complex structure s may benefit more of the advantages of HRIS to increase the efficiency of their recruiting processes. Besides, HRIS are found to be preferred in combination with other HRM practices, instead of on their own. This reveals that human judgement is still the main criterion for making decisions in this area, albeit assessed or supported by the information provided by the HRIS.As for the main hypotheses tested in this research, internal recruitment is the favourite method for filling in vacant positions within the firms, which confirms the theoretical assumptions that asserted that, even though both internal and recruitment strategies are to be considered, the former is less costly and provides more advantages to the firms. Indeed, the evidence supports that a better performance is expected from the people internally recruited, which in turn will improve the overall business performance.European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems (EMCIS) 2006, July 6-7 2006, Costa Blanca , Alicante, Spain J. A. Fernandez-Sanchez et al. Use of HRIS in recruitment process. The Spanish case. 7 The same can be stated about the synergies caused by the interaction between HRIS and internal recruitment. The business managers, overwhelming, agree in the positive effects that the advantages of the latter, and the better quality information provided by the former, have in the outcomes of the recruitment decisions. Finally, we would like to express our own impression on this topic.It is our belief that HRIS add competitive value to the firm as a whole and to the HRM department specifically. Despite this conviction, shared with many other academics of the field, we have reservations supporting that information systems may endow businesses with a sustainable competitive advantage on their own. Classic strategic information systems benefited from their being the first to arrive, but they soon became a commodity, even a compulsory asset in order to remain in the industry. Their pe rvasive condition may inhibit other firms from developing the strategic changes needed for succeeding in the foreseeable future.